What is Synovial joint | Biology Hubspot - Definition and Examples of Biology Terms

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Thursday, February 28, 2019

What is Synovial joint

Synovial joint

The synovial joint is freely movable so it is functionally diarthrosis in nature. It differs from the rest of the joints due to the presence of a  characteristic
feature called the synovial cavity.
The articulating bones of the synovial joint are covered by a layer of hyaline cartilage called articular cartilage. It covers them but doesn't unite or bind them together. Articular cartilage reduces friction and absorbs shock during joint movements.

Articular capsule

It encloses the synovial cavity and unites the articulating bones of the synovial joint with each other. It consists of two layers viz. outer fibrous membrane and inner synovial membrane.
The outer fibrous membrane attaches to the periosteum of the articulating bones and mostly consists of collagen fibers. Due to flexible nature allows considerable movement at a joint, provides great tensile strength to prevent bones from dislocation.
Bundles of fibers in the fibrous membrane, together called ligaments are one of the important means by which articulating bones in synovial joints are united to each other.
The inner synovial membrane is made up of elastic fibers and areolar connective tissue. This type of layer in certain synovial joints is associated with the accumulation of adipose tissue called articular fat pads e.g. fat pads in the knee.

Synovial fluid

Synovial fluid is secreted by the synovial membrane. It consists of two components hyaluronic acid and interstitial fluid.The former is secreted by the fibroblast-like cells present in the synovial membrane and the latter is filtered blood plasma.
Due to the lubricating property of the synovial fluid, it reduces friction between articulating bones and absorbs shock.
Synovial fluid provides nutrients and oxygen and removes carbon dioxide and wastes from articular cartilage (cartilages are avascular).

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